Ethics / Codes of Conduct

Doctor's hand on book with Hippocratic Oath

From Disclosure to Transparency - The Use of Company Payment Data

Susan Chimonas, PhD; Zachary Frosch, BA; David J. Rothman, PhD

Archives of Internal Medicine | 13-Sep-2010

"Our findings indicate that current journal disclosure policies do not yield complete or consistent information regarding industry payments. More than half of the articles in our sample failed to acknowledge an authors' relationship to a company. In no article could readers know how substantial the company payment to an author was. More stringent journal policies were not associated with greater transparency. Although prominent authorship position and article-payment relatedness were associated with increased disclosure, nondisclosure rates remained high: even when the recipient of company funds was the first, sole, or senior author, only 54% of the articles mentioned the company tie. Similarly, even among articles directly or indirectly related to payments, the disclosure rate was only 50%."

Steven Weinberger, M.D., F.A.C.P. | 24-Aug-2010

"The Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS) recently developed its “Code for Interactions with Companies,” which outlined the principles that should guide relationships between medical societies and commercial entities ... Absolute exclusion of any relationships between pharmaceutical companies or device manufacturers and medical societies would ultimately work to the detriment of patients. What is needed is not an absolute prohibition of such relationships, but rather scrupulous adherence to principles and thoughtful adherence to guidelines, such as the ones recently developed by CMSS."

Uniform Format for Disclosure of Competing Interests in ICMJE Journals


International Committee of Medical Journal Editors | 01-Oct-2009

“There is currently no uniform vehicle for the disclosure of financial associations. Thus authors may provide similar information to different journals in multiple formats. In addition, slight differences among journals in requirements for reporting can lead to confusion, as the same individual may report different information to different journals. With this editorial, which is being published simultaneously in all International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) journals, we introduce a new disclosure form that has been adopted by all journals that are members of the ICMJE.”

AdvaMed Code Of Ethics on Interactions with Health Care Professionals

Advanced Medical Technology Association

Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed) | 01-Jul-2009

“AdvaMed has revised current Code sections to provide greater clarity and rigor in areas such as consulting agreements, company-conducted training and education for HCPs, and research and educational grants, among other key areas.”

Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice

Bernard Lo and Marilyn J. Field

Institute of Medicine | 21-Apr-2009

"Collaborations between physicians or medical researchers and pharmaceutical, medical device, and biotechnology companies can benefit society - most notably by promoting the discovery and development of new medications and medical devices that improve individual and public health. However, relationships between medicine and industry may create conflicts of interest, potentially resulting in undue influence on professional judgments."

PhRMA Code on Interactions with Healthcare Professionals

The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) | 01-Jan-2009

“This Code is to reinforce our intention that our interactions with healthcare professionals are professional exchanges designed to benefit patients and to enhance the practice of medicine. The Code is based on the principle that a healthcare professional’s care of patients should be based, and should be perceived as being based, solely on each patient’s medical needs and the healthcare professional’s medical knowledge and experience.”

Opinions on Ethics and Professionalism

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons | 01-Sep-2005

“Generally, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) believes that it is acceptable for industry to provide financial and other support to orthopaedic surgeons if such support has significant educational value and has the purpose of improving patient care. All dealings between orthopaedic surgeons and industry should benefit the patient and be able to withstand public scrutiny.”